Find the more appropriate tools that help to assess and manage the reverine environments, allowing their restoration, is one of the main issues in fluvial zone managements. This paper describes the application to a basin in Albania of the indicators framework DPSIR -Driving Forces-Pressures-State-Impact-Response in a Hydro geological Information System and (GIS) context.


The focus of this work was done to the first two categories. Within the Tirana-Ishmi basin, Tirana – Fushe-Kruja sub-watershed was chosen as the case of study and a set of indicators for the Driving Forces and Pressures categories was defined, and the indicators calculated and discussed.


Urban planning in Albania, has been promoted in various forms of organization and ultimately Territorial Planning Law represents another form of policies on the territory that is linked to the decentralization of control of the territory. In view of the different situations, we think that through this material show some considerations on planning.
In Albania 70% of the population lives in urban areas. However, with the exception of Tirana, Albanian cities are generally smaller than cities EU-Balkans region.


The policies address urban areas in general and areas within the cities.

– “Village near the city”, agriculture has a major role;
– “New village”, tourist settlements and “natural”;
– “Villages at risk” aging population density areas, decrease their production.


Territorial planning policy for sustainable development requires meeting the challenges posed by changing economic, social and cultural development, and to achieve a balance of population, industry, culture, etc., between the provinces of the country, such as:

a) define the principles and directions for a balanced and sustainable development European standards;
b) establishment of the territorial conditions for regional development;
c) direction of the establishment and development of national public infrastructure;


d) creation of conditions for the preservation of ecosystems, biodiversity, natural resources and cultural wealth, balancing the effects of housing systems and economic activities and the protection of green spaces; etc.
The objectives are: convergence; regional competitiveness and employment; European territorial cooperation and are contractual approach as an effective means of implementation of projects that include various levels of government, “an area, a strategy, a contract”.


They will focus on priorities: local competition and attractiveness; environmental dimension of sustainable development; social and territorial cohesion; sustainable development.


In December 2009, the Government of Albania, took a significant step of signing the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD).

The construction environmet in Albania represents a series of physical barriers, which hinder the social engagement of persons with disabilities. Lack of accessibility to dwellings, educational establishment, working and entertainment areas and health care services is already a wellknokn phenomenon in Albania, which affects the life of persons with disability on daily basis.


The accessibility requires the elemination of obstacles in relation to buildings, roads, transportation and other indoor and outdoor facilities. Town planning rules now make it a legally binding requirements that buildings avoid barriers for persons with disabilities although many challanges remain in enforcing the law and ensuring accessibility of buildings and public spaces. In addition, Abanian Government has established accessibility standarts with the aim to guide the construction sector in making the built environment accessible for person


with disabilities.
Such accessibility standarts are sanctioned in the “Regulation on the Utilization of the Spaces by Persons with Disabilities” approved by the Decision of the Council of Ministers, nr 1503, dt. 19.11.2008.
The purpose of this regulation is to define the technical requirements for the elimination of barriers that are defined as “architectural barriers”.This regulation is intended application of the rules for the elimination of architectural barriers in housing, public spaces and services.


• new built private buildings, residential or not;

• public residential buildings financed by the state budget, new built;

• reconstruction of private and public buildings;

• outer space of above buildings in designated areas.


The objective is to improve individual autonomy and access to basic services of persons with disabilities through more accessible buildings. Also, the article will provide current practical applicability in different buildings in different cities in Albania, and will provide conclusions on the difficulties in their achievements and actions for further improvements.


Urban land management is a complex and highly dynamic situation that requires:

•knowledge and understanding of the dynamics and processes of urban growth in a segmented and unregulated land driven market;

•capacity to formulate strategic approaches to planning and development; and

•legislative authority to implement proactive initiatives.
In Albania, in the absence of enforceable land development regulations, Territorial Adjustment Councils use to be function



The article discusses the context of urbanization in Albania and stakeholders involved in the field of urban planning. It describes the existing urban situation and the evolution over the years. It provides and analyzes the main approaches implemented by the government in the urban area.

He also, specifically examines the functioning of urban layer and the role of government. At the same time explains the relationship between urban growth and urban policies and tools to make local government more efficient,

including the legalization issues.

It analyzes the main problems under the current legal, institutional and regulatory, focusing on their main components. Special attention is given to opportunities to promote sustainable and integrated development at the regional level.
This document has been prepared using data collected from surveys and reports, especially:
Preliminary Structure Plan of Greater Tirana, LMTF 1995; Regional Study Corridor Tirana-Durres GTZ, and one of the most important studies of 2002, the Strategic Plan for Greater Tirana.

The document is supported by the material such as “Tirana – Challenge of Urban Development”, 2003, “ICR Implementation Completion Report of Urban Land Management Project”, 2005, “Demographic Atlas of Albania”, 2003 and “Urban Sector Review in Albania”, September 2006, World Bank.

The article examines existing Albanian laws, especially: “On Territorial Planning” and “Organization and Functioning of Local Government”, and other urban-related legislation.

It reflects changes over time and shows dramatic changes in the region after 1990, not only politically and administratively, but also about the structure of the population, migration, and new developments in the urban area.
The document filed in a global context of urbanization and regional development. It presents a brief of its history and the issues facing Tirana-Durres regions and planning for their needs.

Key Words

Regional planning; urbanization, sustainable development, local governance, law, land.



Albania and Kosovo, that were under the socialist system of governance for the past 50 years, have moved to a market economy. Countries should undertake a series of reforms in order to achieve better governance that will lead to a better quality of life of its people in general and good urban conditions in particular. Property and private initiatives should be treated carefully.After 1990, economic opportunities emerged in the cities.


Consequently, rural-urban migration and urban-urban configuration changed quickly in urban areas. In the previous system was state-owned land. Urban development was designed, funded and implemented by the government. Land management (management and land use) was the duty of the state and the system worked in top-down hierarchical direction. Planners were not free to decide on land use (based on the principles of the protection of agricultural land).The demand for land (particularly for urban land with infrastructure)


changed as a result of the following main factors:
• Political and economic changes;

• The combination of poor housing conditions strategies and investments to individuals, seeing both as a financial security of this investment;

• The rapid growth of population in specific regions.

In this context, Tirana, capital of Albania and the Prishtina Kosovo’s capital are facing a lot of problems trying to solve them.Tirana, with a population of 700,000 inhabitants, keeps growing as a result of massive migration from rural areas.


Greater Tirana population has been growing at a rate of 7% per annum.Tirana built environment already occupies over 2,600 acres compared to 1,600 acres in 1990. The vast majority of this development has been built by the informal sector.
Prishtina, with a population of ~ 200,000 inhabitants, with steadily increasing rapidly. Urban planning space in 2000, to Pristina exceed 5,000 ha. The vast majority of this development has been built by the informal sector.


Private ownership of land, free movement of people and decentralized economy has a direct impact on the urbanization of the territory.
In this context there is a need for new city planning. Years 1990 in Albania, as in Kosovo 2000, brought a new model of political, economic and social development of the city. Major changes as the right of ownership, a private sector in the economy, new institutional relationships, etc., brought some changes in the way of understanding the planning sector.


These created new environment sector performance response planning. So, the need and the idea for a new plan emerged urgently. But things have changed, the new laws are in effect and generally doing things differently. This brings other problems other issues in discussion to resolve otherwise.